Australian news, and some related international items

Diseconomics of Generation IV nuclear reactors -theme for April 19

First of all, dispel the nonsense that these expensive gimmicks will solve climate change. They can’t. And even if they could, they’d be deployed far too late to make any difference.

Generation IV nuclear reactors , Thorium Molten Salt Reactors (TMSRs) , Medium and Small Modular Nuclear Reactors (MSRs)   – have only one real use – to support the nuclear weapons industry – providing it with expertise, materials, technology development and media hoohah.

The nuclear salesmen promote other lies,  as well as the climate one.  There’s the lie about solving the waste problem, and the one about safety.

But the most compelling case against Generation IV nuclear reactors is that inevitable one – COST. There’s no market for these nuclear lobby toys – no chance of commercial biability. That’s mainly because , to have any hope, they would have to be ordered en masse. – and who’s going to invest in that risky idea?

Therefore – the only possible customers are governments. Which means YOU – your taxes.

In the meantime, rapid developments in energy efficiency, renewables, and battery storage offer a genuine opportunity for investors – and they are taking it up.

April 6, 2019 Posted by | Christina themes | Leave a comment

Port Lincoln the likely thoroughfare for nuclear waste entering South Australia?

Mara Bonacci, Friends of the Earth nuclear waste campaigner, said ballots for consultation, now on hold after action from traditional landowners, were narrow in scope.

Fellow campaigner Jim Green also voiced the same concerns.

“The government was planning a ballot for Hawker and Kimba, but there was a Barngarla injunction and from the traditional landowners from Hawker,” he said.

Ms Bonacci said the traditional landowners had lodged a formal complaint for racial discrimination and bad consultation.

“It is a non-binding ballot, and very narrow in scope,” she said.

“There are Kimba farms five kilometres from the site but aren’t in the district and so are not eligible to vote.”

She also said towns along transport routes and around the four ports named should also be consulted, which would include Port Pirie, Whyalla, a proposed port on the east coast of the Eyre Peninsula, and Port Lincoln.

Both Mr Green and Ms Bonacci instead advocate for the continuing interim storing of intermediate-level nuclear waste to remain in Lucas Heights in New South Wales, and the continuing storage of low-level waste on defence land.

As Kimba and Hawker are proposed as above-ground, non-permanent (up to 100 years) storage sites of nuclear waste, Friends of the Earth are advocating for a permanent solution to be discussed while capacity is still viable at Lucas Heights.

“Move it once, not twice,” said Ms Bonacci.

“There is no proven need for this facility and there is certainly no need for it to be sited in SA.”

Mr Green said there was “no logic” to moving the waste to South Australia, and the government has no permanent solution for the long-term storage of low-level and intermediate waste.

“There’s no reason for (the government) to drive it,” he said.

Friends of the Earth nuclear waste campaigners have travelled to Port Pirie, Port Augusta, Whyalla and Port Lincoln to meet with councils, Grey Candidates, trade unions and traditional owners to raise their issues.

“It’s divisive and unnecessarily expensive,” said Mr Green.

“Whoever fights the least hardest gets nuclear waste transported through their ports.”

Mayor Brad Flaherty met with the advocates this week and said it was the first he had heard of the Port Lincoln port being named as a potential thoroughfare.

“But I don’t see it as likely (to be used), they would have just looked at the radius around the geographical area and chosen four of the closest ports.”

April 6, 2019 Posted by | AUSTRALIA - NATIONAL, Federal nuclear waste dump | Leave a comment

ANSTO can afford to help China build new reactors, but apparently not to maintain its own building safely

How come, if ANSTO is so cash-strapped, that its CEO Dr Adi Paterson, can find the money to join with China’s SINAP in developing  Thorium Molten Salt Reactors?,12488#.XJWdhxDqitc.twitter


Federal budget leaves ‘urgent’ rebuild of Sydney nuclear facility up in air, By Carrie Fellner, April 4, 2019 The Morrison government has failed to provide the $210 million needed to decommission an “unsafe” nuclear medicine facility at Lucas Heights, with money only provided towards a business case in this week’s federal budget.

The decision has sparked concern for public safety, after an independent panel of experts found the building did not meet modern nuclear safety standards and called for its urgent replacement last October.

“The lack of a permanent replacement solution … is undermining the possibility of truly effective risk control,” the reviewers found.

Known as “Building 23”, the facility – built in the 1950s – has been dogged by accidents and near-misses in recent years, including a radioactive spill in 2017 that was then classified as the most serious incident in the world.

The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) is responsible for maintaining Building 23.

Tuesday’s federal budget sets ANSTO’s 2019-20 funding at $354.9 million, which includes more than $56.4 million for the support of nuclear medicine production.

Money to plan for the replacement of the building must be drawn from a bucket of $26 million given to ANSTO for the “maintenance of ageing infrastructure”, according to an ANSTO statement.

The same money must also cover the management of spent nuclear fuel and waste and planning for the production of nuclear medicine in the future.

Minister for Science and Technology Karen Andrews said the funding given would allow “the development of a business case to consider options to secure the long-term and sustainable future of Australia’s nuclear medicine supply”.

“The funding will enable proactive maintenance work and equipment upgrades to support the ongoing operations of the nuclear medicine production facility,” she said.

But Labor slammed the government’s decision not to provide the full amount to replace the building, arguing it was “clear it is no longer fit for purpose”.

“Despite warnings from ANSTO, and the recent independent report, the government has not made public any plans to replace or upgrade Building 23,” opposition spokesman for science and research Kim Carr said.

“As a matter of public safety, we expect that the government should act on this matter.

“A Labor government would live up to its obligations to secure a safe working environment for all employees.”

A spokesman for ANSTO welcomed the overall funding increase of $112.4 million since the previous financial year, and said the budget had made provision “to start the necessary planning work” for the replacement of Building 23, to occur “over a five- to 10-year horizon”.

“Regarding Building 23, it is typical practice around the world, including Australia, that nuclear facilities are both planned for, then operated, over horizons of many decades,” the spokesman said.

The most serious of the accidents at the building occurred in August 2017, when a worker suffered blisters after a vial of radioactive material spilled onto his hands. The employee received a “significant radiation dose”, elevating his risk of cancer.

There were a further three incidents within the following 12 months.

They prompted an independent review, which found Building 23 failed to meet modern nuclear safety standards and warned of a “make-do and mend” culture.

A replacement facility had been in the pipeline for several years but plans had been hindered because of federal government budget restrictions, the review found.

“Heightened expectations and then subsequent failure to secure backing for replacing this
ageing facility has led to frustration, disappointment and cynicism amongst the staff,” it said.

The review made 85 recommendations, including that the Australian government commit to a replacement facility as soon as practicable.

According to the regulator – the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency [ARPANSA] – an implementation plan to address the rest of the recommendations is still under development.

ANSTO submitted a draft of the plan to the regulator last December, but is yet to receive approval.

An ARPANSA spokeswoman said the organisation had “demonstrated progress” towards addressing the recommendations.

“However [it was] felt that ANSTO did not provide sufficient detail around the objectives and strategies that would achieve the desired improvements and safety outcomes,” she said.

The organisations were in “frequent communication” and it was anticipated the plan would be approved in coming months.

“Twenty actions responding to the recommendations in the report have already been completed,” the ANSTO spokesman added.

April 6, 2019 Posted by | AUSTRALIA - NATIONAL, safety | Leave a comment

Millions of children in danger, as climate change impacts Bangladesh

How global climate change is already devastating Banglades

Climate change threatens millions of Bangladeshi children, warns UNICEF SBS News A new report shows environmental disasters linked to climate change are threatening the lives and futures of more than 19 million children in Bangladesh, including prompting many families to push their daughters into child marriages., BY CHARLOTTE LAM, 5 Apr 19, 

The humanitarian agency said on Friday that the country’s flat topography, dense population and weak infrastructure makes it “uniquely vulnerable to the powerful and unpredictable forces that climate change is compounding”.

The report author, Simon Ingram, said the danger was “flooding is extreme and it is almost on an annual basis”.

The report, titled “Gathering Storm: Climate change clouds the future of children in Bangladesh”, showed about 12 million children currently live in and around powerful river systems, which flow through Bangladesh and regularly burst their banks.

Another 4.5 million children live in coastal areas, which are regularly struck by powerful cyclones, including almost half a million Rohingya refugee children from neighbouring Myanmar – living in makeshift bamboo and plastic shelters.

A further 3 million Bangladeshi children live in farming communities, which are facing increasing periods of drought.

The report also found a link between climate change and child marriage, child labour and access to education is evident in various parts of Bangladesh.

“Climate change is undoubtedly increasing the number of children who are pushed into the workplace, where they miss out on an education and are terribly exposed to violence and abuse,” UNICEF Bangladesh Child Protection specialist Kristina Wesslund said……….

Mr Ingram said there were already six million climate refugees in Bangladeshi cities, a number that could double by 2050.

Rising sea levels leading to unchecked saltwater intrusion also posed a threat to pregnant women, with the report showing an increased risk of medical conditions, including pre-eclampsia and hypertension, identified among mothers-to-be at the coast.

April 6, 2019 Posted by | General News | Leave a comment

Australia and Britain’s shameful history of Nuclear Bombing of First Nations Lands   

Living with the legacy of British Nuclear testing: Bobby Brown

Maralinga No More: The British Nuclear Bombing of First Nations Lands, By Paul Gregoire   31/03/2019

As former Australian Conservation Foundation anti-nuclear campaigner David Noonan put it in 2005, “Australia is the only society to have ever provided its own uranium to an overseas nuclear weapons state to make nuclear weapons to then bomb back on their own land.”

And it was Scott Morrison’s pin-up boy, former prime minister Robert Menzies, who in 1950 said yes to the British government carrying out secret nuclear weapons tests without initially consulting cabinet, whilst making assurances that no negative radioactive impact would occur.

Around 800 kilometres northeast of Adelaide, Maralinga was chosen as the main nuclear testing site, as the government found that the Maralinga Tjarutja people – who’d been living there since time immemorial – weren’t actually using the land.

The local Indigenous peoples were never consulted about the testing. Many were forcibly removed from their lands and taken to Yalata mission in SA, which effectively served as a prison camp. Some remained in the vicinity of the test site. Signs written in English were erected warning them to leave.

Indeed, on 27 September 1956, when the first nuclear device, One Tree, was detonated at Maralinga, First Nations peoples had no rights under Commonwealth Law. The vote didn’t come until 1962, while citizenship rights weren’t granted until the 1967 Referendum.

A toxic legacy

The Menzies Liberal government passed the Defence (Special Undertakings) Act 1952, which effectively allowed the British to access remotes parts of Australia to test atomic weapons. The general public for the most part had no awareness or understanding of what would take place.

British and Australian servicemen built a test site, airstrip and township at Maralinga known as Section 400. Australian troops signed documents under Australian secrecy laws that required them never to divulge any operational information, with the threat of harsh prison sentences.

Between September 1956 and October 1957, the British set off seven above ground nuclear bombs ranging from 1 to 27 kilotons. The first four were part of Operation Buffalo, while the last three made up Operation Antler.

Following these tests, the British continued to carry out around 600 minor nuclear warhead tests up until 1963. And it was these that caused the greatest contamination. The most dire being the Vixen B tests that led to massive contamination of plutonium, which has a half-life of over 24,000 years.

The impact upon First Nations

Around 1,200 Aboriginal people were exposed to the radioactive fallout of the tests. This could lead to blindness, skin rashes and fever. It caused the early deaths of entire families. And long-term illnesses such as cancer and lung disease became prevalent amongst these communities.

As for those who were moved away from their homelands, their way of life was destroyed. The Maralinga Tjarutja Land Rights Act was passed by the SA parliament in 1984, which ensured the damaged land was handed back freehold to traditional owners, as soon as it became “safe” again.

The Maralinga Tjarutja people, as well as other First Nations peoples, gradually returned to their homelands. Australia and reluctant British governments carried out initially terribly shonky clean-ups, that got progressively better, of the Maralinga site in 1967, 2000 and 2009.

And the British government eventually paid affected Aboriginal peoples $13.5 million in compensation for the loss and contamination of their lands in 1995.

Prior to Maralinga

The late Yankunytjatjara elder Yami Lester was just a boy living at Walatinna in the South Australian outback, when at 7 am on 15 October 1953, the British detonated a nuclear bomb at a test site at Emu Fields, northeast of Maralinga.

Mr Lester watched as a long, black cloud of smoke stretched out from the bomb site towards his homelands. In the wake of two tests carried out at Emu Fields within 12 days of each other, Yemi permanently lost his site, sudden deaths occurred, and his people suffered long-term illnesses.

The Emu Fields blasts were not the first on Australian soils. The initial nuclear bomb blast was carried out on the Monte Bello Islands in October 1952, while two more blasts took place in this Indian Ocean region in 1956.

And just like the Maralinga and Emu Fields blasts, the radioactive waste from these islands travelled across the entire continent. Two hotspots of excessive radioactive fallout resulting from the Emu Fields blasts were the NSW towns of Lismore and Dubbo.

Adding insult to injury

In 1989, the federal government announced it was establishing a nuclear waste dump near Coober Pedy in SA on the lands the Kupa Piti Kungka Tjuta, a senior women’s council representing the local peoples, many of whom had directly suffered the impacts of British nuclear testing.

As opposition to the dump grew, the government used the provisions of the Land Acquisition Act 1989 to seize the land, where it proposed to store the waste that was being produced at Sydney’s Lucas Heights reactor.

n July 2004, after a six year long battle the Kungka Tjuta senior women brought a stop the nuclear waste repository being situated on their land. And the federal government then turned to the NT’s Muckaty Station to dump the NSW waste. However, after that fell through, it’s still looking for a site.

The global threat continues

Maralinga took place at the height of the Cold War, after the US government refused to continue its nuclear program with British participation. And following World War Two, the crumbling empire sought to develop its own nuclear capacities in its faraway colonial backyard.

But, while many believe the threat of nuclear war faded with the end of the Cold War, renowned political analyst Noam Chomsky still warns that the two major threats in the world today are climate change and nuclear war.

Chomsky has pointed to a March 2007 article published in the Bulletin of the Atomic Sciences that revealed the “extremely dangerous” threat the Trump administration’s nuclear forces modernisation program is creating.

And as of January this year, the Doomsday Clock – which measures the likelihood of human-made global catastrophe – is still set at two minutes to midnight, as it first was 12 months prior. Based on the two threats identified by Chomsky, this setting is the closest to midnight it’s been since 1953.

April 6, 2019 Posted by | aboriginal issues, AUSTRALIA - NATIONAL, history, reference | 4 Comments

Chernobyl’s disastrous cover-up is a warning for the next nuclear age

Fortunately, Chernobyl health records are now available to the public. They show that people living in the radioactive traces fell ill from cancers, respiratory illness, anaemia, auto-immune disorders, birth defects, and fertility problems two to three times more frequently in the years after the accident than before. In a highly contaminated Belarusian town of Veprin, just six of 70 children in 1990 were characterised as “healthy”. The rest had one chronic disease or another. On average, the Veprin children had in their bodies 8,498 bq/kg of radioactive caesium (20 bq/kg is considered safe).

For decades, researchers have puzzled over strange clusters of thyroid cancer, leukaemia and birth defects among people living in Cumbria, which, like southern Belarus, is an overlooked hotspot of radioactivity from cold war decades of nuclear bomb production and nuclear power accidents.

Currently, policymakers are advocating a massive expansion of nuclear power as a way to combat climate change. Before we enter a new nuclear age, the declassified Chernobyl health records raise questions that have been left unanswered about the impact of chronic low doses of radioactivity on human health.


As researchers monitored Chernobyl radioactivity, they made a troubling discovery. Only half of the caesium-137 they detected came from Chernobyl. The rest had already been in the Cumbrian soils; deposited there during the years of nuclear testing and after the 1957 fire at the Windscale plutonium plant. The same winds and rains that brought down Chernobyl fallout had been at work quietly distributing radioactive contaminants across northern England and Scotland for decades. Fallout from bomb tests carried out during the cold war scattered a volume of radioactive gases that dwarfed Chernobyl. 

The Chernobyl explosions issued 45m curies of radioactive iodine into the atmosphere. Emissions from Soviet and US bomb tests amounted to 20bn curies of radioactive iodine, 500 times more. Radioactive iodine, a short lived, powerful isotope can cause thyroid disease, thyroid cancer, hormonal imbalances, problems with the GI tract and autoimmune disorders.

As engineers detonated over 2,000 nuclear bombs into the atmosphere, scientists lost track of where radioactive isotopes fell and where they came from, but they caught glimpses of how readily radioactivity travelled the globe.,   So that day, in a Moscow airport, technicians loaded artillery shells with silver iodide. Soviet air force pilots climbed into the cockpits of TU-16 bombers and made the easy one-hour flight to Chernobyl, where the reactor burned. The pilots circled, following the weather. They flew 30, 70, 100, 200km – chasing the inky black billows of radioactive waste. When they caught up with a cloud, they shot jets of silver iodide into it to emancipate the rain.

In the sleepy towns of southern Belarus, villagers looked up to see planes with strange yellow and grey contrails snaking across the sky. Next day, 27 April, powerful winds kicked up, cumulus clouds billowed on the horizon, and rain poured down in a deluge. The raindrops scavenged radioactive dust floating 200 metres in the air and sent it to the ground. The pilots trailed the slow-moving gaseous bulk of nuclear waste north-east beyond Gomel, into Mogilev province. Wherever pilots shot silver iodide, rain fell, along with a toxic brew of a dozen radioactive elements.

If Operation Cyclone had not been top secret, the headline would have been spectacular: “Scientists using advanced technology save Russian cities from technological disaster!” Yet, as the old saying goes, what goes up must come down. No one told the Belarusians that the southern half of the republic had been sacrificed to protect Russian cities. In the path of the artificially induced rain lived several hundred thousand Belarusians ignorant of the contaminants around them.

The public is often led to believe that the Chernobyl exclusion zone, a depopulated 20-mile circle around the blown plant, safely contains Chernobyl radioactivity. Tourists and journalists exploring the zone rarely realise there is a second Chernobyl zone in southern Belarus. In it, people lived for 15 years in levels of contamination as high as areas within the official zone until the area was finally abandoned, in 1999.

In believing that the Chernobyl zone safely contained the accident, we fall for the proximity trap, which holds that the closer a person is to a nuclear explosion, the more radioactivity they are exposed to. But radioactive gases follow weather patterns, moving around the globe to leave shadows of contamination in shapes that resemble tongues, kidneys, or the sharp tips of arrows. Continue reading

April 6, 2019 Posted by | General News | Leave a comment

Saudi Arabia has nearly finished building its first nuclear reactor – leading to nuclear weapons?

Saudi Arabia’s first nuclear reactor nearly finished, sparking fears over safeguards, Riyadh has so far resisted international watchdog’s requests to accept a strict inspection regime, Guardian, Julian Borger in Washington, 4 Apr 2019

Saudi Arabia is within months of completing its first nuclear reactor, new satellite images show, but it has yet to show any readiness to abide by safeguards that would prevent it making a bomb.

The reactor site is in the King Abdulaziz city for science and technology on the outskirts of Riyadh. The site was identified by Robert Kelley, a former director for nuclear inspections at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), who said it was very small 30-kilowatt research reactor, not far from completion.

“I would guess they could have it all done, with the roof in place and the electricity turned on, within a year,” said Kelley, who worked for more than three decades in research and engineering in the US nuclear weapons complex………

Before inserting nuclear fuel into the reactor, Saudi Arabia would have to implement a comprehensive set of rules and procedures, including IAEA inspections, designed to ensure no fissile material was diverted for use in weapons – something it has so far avoided

The reactor has been designed by an Argentinian state-owned company, Invap SE……..Saudi Arabia joined the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1988 but signed a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the IAEA only in 2005, and at the same time exempted itself from regular inspections, by signing a “small quantities protocol” (SQP), designed for countries with negligible quantities of nuclear material.

Largely because of controversy over Riyadh being shielded from scrutiny under these rules, the IAEA made the SQP more rigorous, but the Saudis resisted making changes……..


April 6, 2019 Posted by | General News | Leave a comment

Creative action against nuclear waste   Chris Bluemel, Stop New Nuclear Network , 5th April 2019 Campaigners will gather at the Springfields nuclear site in Lancashire to raise awareness on the twin fronts of new nuclear generation and radioactive waste disposal.

Nuclear power has never lived up to the promise of cheap energy for all, but the costs have included displacement and sickness to nearby communities, contamination of land and water resources, and a build up of 70 years worth of nuclear waste.

In the UK, the costs of nuclear developments have been borne by the taxpayer. Under the ‘Contracts for Difference’ scheme, bills for electricity from the new plant at Hinkley C will be twice what we currently pay.

This does not cover the costs of accidents, which are underwritten by the Government. Nuclear plants typically run overtime and over-budget.

Nuclear waste

The Government’s consultation about burying nuclear waste is about to end, kicking off a five-year search for a willing host community with ‘suitable’ ground conditions.

We are presented with two options: leave the waste in crumbling storage facilities like Sellafield; or bury it and let it contaminate the environment.

In Scotland, new surface-level management facilities are being built but in England this is deemed too expensive. It is clear that we need a solution to managing the waste before we create more of it.

Springfields is where nuclear fuel is produced for both civil and military use, and waste processed from both the UK and abroad.

‘Surround Springfields’ on 27 April is an opportunity to follow the route of radioactive waste and to understand how this issue affects everyone, everywhere.

Creative action 

We will even be dressing as barrels of waste in an attempt to break a world record for surrounding a nuclear site.

We will also be having a live conversation with indigenous people in other countries via a webinar about the impacts of uranium mining and nuclear waste. You can join this remotely if you cannot get there – check our Facebook page for details.

Do we choose a long term, socially responsible and ethical energy supply, with a moral commitment to the wellbeing of future generations?

We need to come together and make the Government approach these challenges with vision and creativity, not with the poverty of ambition, opacity and lack of foresight that characterises the nuclear solution.

Take part

Surround Springfields will take place on Saturday 27 April. For more information, contact the organisers.

This Author 

Chris Bluemel is a music teacher and campaigner and part of the Stop New Nuclear network. He has been involved in a wide range of campaigning from standing in elections as a Green Party candidate to direct action against road-building, fracking, the DSEI arms fair, and Trident.  He is also part of the radical protest-folk band Seize The Day.

April 6, 2019 Posted by | General News | Leave a comment

How sharing solar, batteries and EVs will make energy system more resilient — RenewEconomy

Electric vehicles and V2G technology will play a key role in helping consumers use their solar and batteries to make their grids more resilient. The post How sharing solar, batteries and EVs will make energy system more resilient appeared first on RenewEconomy.

via How sharing solar, batteries and EVs will make energy system more resilient — RenewEconomy

April 6, 2019 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

The shocking regulatory and cultural fail in Australia’s energy transition — RenewEconomy

AEMC gets headlines about renewables it was looking for in its latest reliability review, but it barely covers up its own failings in the shift to clean energy. The post The shocking regulatory and cultural fail in Australia’s energy transition appeared first on RenewEconomy.

via The shocking regulatory and cultural fail in Australia’s energy transition — RenewEconomy

April 6, 2019 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Labor’s emissions reduction policy: Does it really add up? — RenewEconomy

Labor’s 50% renewables target is an excellent electricity transformation policy, but it’s only a one-third reduction in carbon output from today’s level. The post Labor’s emissions reduction policy: Does it really add up? appeared first on RenewEconomy.

via Labor’s emissions reduction policy: Does it really add up? — RenewEconomy

April 6, 2019 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Renewables smashed records in 2018, says report – and truly trumped coal on cost — RenewEconomy

Report details “remarkable” 2018 for Australian renewables, including doubling of investment in large-scale projects, and delivering wind and solar – with storage – at costs cheaper than new coal. The post Renewables smashed records in 2018, says report – and truly trumped coal on cost appeared first on RenewEconomy.

via Renewables smashed records in 2018, says report – and truly trumped coal on cost — RenewEconomy

April 6, 2019 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Renewables provide over half of German net power in March — RenewEconomy

The German renewable energy industry set a new record in March, producing over half of the country’s net electricity generation. The post Renewables provide over half of German net power in March appeared first on RenewEconomy.

via Renewables provide over half of German net power in March — RenewEconomy

April 6, 2019 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Canada replaces largest North American coal plant with solar — RenewEconomy

A 44MW solar facility has been completed in Ontario, built on the site of what was once the largest coal-fired power plant in North America. The post Canada replaces largest North American coal plant with solar appeared first on RenewEconomy.

via Canada replaces largest North American coal plant with solar — RenewEconomy

April 6, 2019 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment